Mental, physical and cognitive wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic: Data from Scotland and Japan

Examples of tasks and questions in both Japanese and English.

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Example of Iowa Gambling Task In Japanese

Participants select cards from one of four decks of cards to win as much ‘game money’ as possible. There are two ‘advantageous’ decks that result in an overall gain in the long run and two ‘disadvantageous’ decks that penalise the most.

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Bechara, A., Damasio A.R., Damasio H., Anderson S.W. (1994). Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition, 50(1-3), 7-15.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(94)90018-3


Example of Flanker task in Japanese

Participant are presented with a target arrow located in the centre of the screen and two flankers located on each side of the target arrow. Participants should ignore flankers and press the J key when the target points right, or the F key when it points left. Participants should respond as fast and accurately as possible.

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Wylie, S. A., Ridderinkhof, K. R., Eckerle, M. K., & Manning, C. A. (2007). Inefficient response inhibition in individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychologica, 45(7), 1408-1419.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.11.003


Example of Digit Symbol Substitution Task in Japanese

Using a look-up table displayed at the top of the screen participants confirm whether a digit-symbol pair match or mismatch as shown in the table. The J key is pressed where the pair is the same as displayed in the table, the F key is pressed if the pair is a mismatch to what is displayed in the table.

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Chatterjee, D., Gavas, R. D., Chakravarty, K., Sinha, A., & Lahiri, U., (2019). Evaluating age-related variations of gaze behavior for a novel digitized-digit symbol substitution test. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 12(1):5.
https://doi.org/10.16910/jemr.12.1.5


Example of Symbol Learning task in Japanese

Participants should study the symbols and their meaning to learn the meaning of each symbol. This will be followed by a short set of mathematical problems. Participants will then be asked to recall the meaning of each symbol.

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Yang, C., Potts, R., & Shanks, D. R. (2017). The forward testing effect on self-regulated study time allocation and metamemory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 23(3), 263-277.
https://doi.org10.1037/xap0000122


Example of Time Production Task in Japanese

Participants will be provided with a time to estimate (e.g., 1000ms). A question mark (?) will then be displayed and participants should press the space bar to estimate when the given amount of time has passed.

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Tortello, C., Agostino, P. V., Folgueira, A., Barbarito, M., Cuiuli, J. M., Coll, M., Golombek, D. A., Plano, S. A., & Vigo, D. E. (2020). Subjective time estimation in Antarctica: The impact of extreme environments and isolation on a time production task. Neuroscience Letters, 23, 725:134893.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.134893


Mood Questions in Japanese

For 10 mood items participants use a visual analogue scale to indicate the extent to which they are experiencing the given mood at this moment.

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Grove, J. R., & Prapavessis, H. (1992). Preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of an abbreviated Profile of Mood States. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 23(2), 93–109.


Perceived Isolation Question in Japanese

Participants use the visual analogue scale to indicate how socially isolated they are feeling at this time.

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)


Example of Iowa Gambling Task in English

IOWA Participants select cards from one of four decks of cards to win as much ‘game money’ as possible. There are two ‘advantageous’ decks that result in an overall gain in the long run and two ‘disadvantageous’ decks that penalise the most.

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)


Bechara, A., Damasio A.R., Damasio H., Anderson S.W. (1994). Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition, 50(1-3), 7-15.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(94)90018-3


Example of Flanker Task in English

Participant are presented with a target arrow located in the centre of the screen and two flankers located on each side of the target arrow. Participants should ignore flankers and press the J key when the target points right, or the F key when it points left. Participants should respond as fast and accurately as possible.

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)


Wylie, S. A., Ridderinkhof, K. R., Eckerle, M. K., & Manning, C. A. (2007). Inefficient response inhibition in individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychologica, 45(7), 1408-1419.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.11.003


Example of Digit Symbol Substitution Task in English

Using a look-up table displayed at the top of the screen participants confirm whether a digit-symbol pair match or mismatch as shown in the table. The J key is pressed where the pair is the same as displayed in the table, the F key is pressed if the pair is a mismatch to what is displayed in the table.

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)


Chatterjee, D., Gavas, R. D., Chakravarty, K., Sinha, A., & Lahiri, U., (2019). Evaluating age-related variations of gaze behavior for a novel digitized-digit symbol substitution test. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 12(1):5.
https://doi.org/10.16910/jemr.12.1.5


Example of Symbol Learning task in English

Participants should study the symbols and their meaning to learn the meaning of each symbol. This will be followed by a short set of mathematical problems. Participants will then be asked to recall the meaning of each symbol.

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)


Yang, C., Potts, R., & Shanks, D. R. (2017). The forward testing effect on self-regulated study time allocation and metamemory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 23(3), 263-277.
https://doi.org10.1037/xap0000122


Example of Time Production Task English

Participants will be provided with a time to estimate (e.g., 1000ms). A question mark (?) will then be displayed and participants should press the space bar to estimate when the given amount of time has passed.

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)


Tortello, C., Agostino, P. V., Folgueira, A., Barbarito, M., Cuiuli, J. M., Coll, M., Golombek, D. A., Plano, S. A., & Vigo, D. E. (2020). Subjective time estimation in Antarctica: The impact of extreme environments and isolation on a time production task. Neuroscience Letters, 23, 725:134893.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.134893


Mood Questions in English

For 10 mood items participants use a visual analogue scale to indicate the extent to which they are experiencing the given mood at this moment.

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)


Grove, J. R., & Prapavessis, H. (1992). Preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of an abbreviated Profile of Mood States. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 23(2), 93–109.


Perceived Isolation Question in English

Participants use the visual analogue scale to indicate how socially isolated they are feeling at this time.

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)

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Preferred Citation
Conducted at University of the West of Scotland
Published on 30 March 2022
Corresponding author Dr Joanne Ingram School Of Education and Social Science
University of the West of Scotland